The "!" in the name stands for a clicking sound made with your tongue
and the roof of your mouth.
Julia R. Ambrose,
Scientific Officer, Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew, England, sent us everything you would
want to know about the !narra plant.
In the Namib
Desert the fruits and seeds of !narra have been used for nearly
and are still harvested by local Topnaar-Hottentots
of the plant is felt not only by the people who live there, but
also by the small animals, insects, microorganisms, and the desert
as a whole.
is a program
you can use to explore decentralized systems. You can download and
read about it
The !narra as
a *Starlogo project
To watch a movie
of the !Narra
Here is a
of the plant. You will need the *Starlogo program to run the project
Places Online ©1999 Science Museum of
Sandelowsky, B.H. (1977) Mirabib--an archeological study in the Namib. Madoquo, 10(4):10-21
Dentlinger, 1977, pers. obs., 1992
Dentlinger, U. (1977). The !Narra Plant in the Topnaar Hottento Culture of Namibia. Munger African Library notes, No.38. Pasedena: California Institute of Technology. 39 pp.
Arnold, T.H., Wells, M.J. and Wehmeyer, A.S. 1985.
Khoisan food plants: taxa with potential for future economic exploitation. In Wickens, G.E., Goodin, J.R. and Field, D.V., eds. Plants for arid lands. London, U.K.: Unwin Hyman. Pp. 69-86. En. Proceedings of the Kew International Conference on Economic Plants for Arid Lands, 23-27 July 1984, held in the Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.